Use of alternative performance measures

The Boule Group’s financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS. Only a small number of performance measures are defined in IFRS. Boule applies the ESMA (European Securities and Market Authority) Guidelines for Alternative Performance Measures. In brief, an alternative performance measure is a financial measure of historical or future earnings development, financial position or cash flow that is not defined or specified in IFRS. Boule presents certain non-IFRS performance measures in order to support management and other stakeholders in their analysis of the Group’s development. Management believes that use of these measures facilitates this analysis. These alternative performance measures supplement the information presented in accordance with IFRS and do not replace IFRS performance measures. Boule’s definitions of non-IFRS performance measures shown on page 20 may differ from those of other companies. Calculations for all performance measures can be reconciled to line items in the income statement and balance sheet.


Sales growth is net sales for the period divided by net sales for the comparative period, expressed as a percentage change

Gross profit is net sales less cost of sales

Gross margin is gross profit divided by net sales

EBITDA (Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization) is profit before net financial items, taxes, depreciation of property, plant and equipment and amortization of intangible assets

EBITDA margin is EBITDA divided by net sales

EBITA (Earnings before interest, taxes and amortization) is operating profit before net financial items, taxes and amortization of intangible assets

EBITA margin is EBITA divided by net sales

EBIT (Earnings before interest and taxes) is operating profit before net financial items and taxes

EBIT margin (Operating margin) is EBIT divided by net sales

Working capital is inventories, trade receivables (current and non-current) and cash less trade payables

Interest coverage ratio is operating profit plus finance income divided by finance costs

Return on equity is profit after tax divided by average equity

Net debt is interest-bearing liabilities less cash and cash equivalents and current and non-current interest-bearing receivables guaranteed by EKN

Net debt/equity ratio is net debt divided by equity

Equity/assets ratio is equity divided by total assets.

Operating margin excluding non-recurring expenses is operating profit before non-recurring expenses divided by net sales

Operational cash flow is cash flow from operating activities, excluding net investments in intangible assets and property, plant and equipment, financing, non-recurring items and restructuring expenses, but including tax paid.

Latest updated: 3/7/2022 1:36:38 PM by Alexander Paziraei